Perestroika It is a Russian word that can be translated as "reconstruction" . Accepted by the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE ), the term is used to refer to opening process which took place in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.R.S.S. ) at the end of the decade of 1980 .
Perestroika was a reform what modified the economic and political structure of the U.R.S.S. The person responsible for his impulse was Mikhail Gorbachev , top leader of Communist Party soviet between 1985 and 1991 and boss of State of the U.R.S.S. from 1988 to 1991 .
Gorbachev He intended a new organization of the socialist regime with the objective of maintaining it. In this framework, he promoted democratic mechanisms in politics and initiated a shift towards an economy of market .
With perestroika, individual labor contracts began to be allowed and private economic activities were authorized, for example. Also the State of the U.R.S.S. He broke away from companies and created a new financial and banking system. Regarding political issues, this dimension of the process was known as glásnost ("opening" ) and included greater freedoms and pluralism.
The plan, however, did not give the expected results. Perestroika caused an increase in inflation , multiplied the poverty and paralyzed the economy . On the other hand, while the communists opposed perestroika for moving away from socialism, the liberals considered the reform to be too slow.
Faced with this panorama, in 1990 the state sovereignty of the Soviet Federal Socialist Republic of Russia and then other members of the Union They proclaimed their independence. Finally the December 8, 1991 the dissolution treaty of the U.R.S.S. and the Commonwealth of Independent States (C.E.I. ).